Abuses in Medicine & Research

A woman sits with a young child and holds a newspaper that announces the end of school segregation.

This was the era of Jim Crow -- when black people showed up at white-only hospitals, the staff was likely to send them away, even if it meant they might die in the parking lot.
The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks, pg. 15

Segregation | G6PD



  • The Way We Were (Dome) Volume 55, Number 7, September 2004.
    In the mid-20th century, segregation prevailed across America. A retired administrator recalls what those years were like at Hopkins Hospital.

  • Racial Record of Johns Hopkins University (Journal of Blacks in Higher Education) Issue 25, October 31, 1999. Last year a portrait of the late Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall was unveiled on the Johns Hopkins campus. This was the first time in the history of the university that an image of a nonwhite person would hang from the wall in a building on the main campus. Current Johns Hopkins President William Brady used the ceremony of the unveiling of the portrait to assess the state of racial diversity on the Hopkins campus. Brady stated that "Hopkins is still living with its legacy as a southern segregated institution." The Johns Hopkins president said he was proud of the fact that the university had made great strides in student diversity but voiced concern that the faculty of Johns Hopkins remained predominantly white.

  • Hospitals and Civil Rights, 1945-1963: The Case of Simkins v Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital (Annals of Internal Medicine) June 1, 1997.
    In the 1960s, the legacy of discrimination against black persons still existed in all areas of medicine. This historical analysis investigates the strategies that were used by lawyers alongside physicians, dentists, and patients in elevating health care for black persons. Primary resources include oral histories, government documents, hospital records, archival and personal manuscripts, and professional and hospital periodicals.

  • Record of the first physician to see Henrietta Lacks at the Johns Hopkins Hospital: History of the beginning of the HeLa cell line (American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology) 176, no. 6 (June 1997).
    On February 1, 1950, I was 40 years of age. I had graduated from medical school some 15 years before. After graduation, I had been through the usual residency training program and then spent 2 years at the Kelly Clinic in Baltimore. This clinic was a cancer treatment center founded by Howard A. Kelly, the first professor of gynecology at Johns Hopkins. It was a freestanding clinic, which he maintained after he resigned from the chairmanship. At the clinic, we treated more than 100 cases of cervical cancer a year; in fact, all of the cancer cases seen at the Johns Hopkins Hospital were referred to the Kelly Clinic for therapy. However, by 1950, a cancer clinic had been established at Hopkins and was directed by Bozo Brack as the Director and Jerry Galvin and Howard Jones as the two staff people. During this interval, including the time at the Kelly Clinic, I had seen probably 1000 patients with cancer of the cervix. I mention these details only to qualify as a witness to the problem that was faced when Henrietta Lacks appeared at the clinic on February 1, 1951.

  • The Strange Career of Jim Crow (Oxford) 1955.
    The Strange Career of Jim Crow is one of the great works of Southern history. Indeed, the book actually helped shape that history. Published in 1955, a year after the Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education ordered schools desegregated, Strange Career was cited so often to counter arguments for segregation that Martin Luther King, Jr. called it "the historical Bible of the civil rights movement." The book offers a clear and illuminating analysis of the history of Jim Crow laws, presenting evidence that segregation in the South dated only to the 1890s. Woodward convincingly shows that, even under slavery, the two races had not been divided as they were under the Jim Crow laws of the 1890s. In fact, during Reconstruction, there was considerable economic and political mixing of the races. The segregating of the races was a relative newcomer to the region. Hailed as one of the top 100 nonfiction works of the twentieth century, The Strange Career of Jim Crow has sold almost a million copies and remains, in the words of David Herbert Donald, "a landmark in the history of American race relations." (Google Books)

  • The Relationship of Fetal and Infant Mortality to Residential Segregation: An Inquiry Into Social Epidemiology (American Sociological Review) Volume 15, Number 5, October 1950.
    In the City of New York during the three years I945-1947, 2,060 infants of resident non-white parentage died before completing the first year of their lives. If the same infant mortality rate had prevailed among them as among infants of white parentage, only 1,130 would have died. For these three years the annual average non-white infant mortality rate was 87% higher than the white rate

  • Consequences of Racial Segregation (American Catholic Sociological Review) June 1949.
    Sociologists define segregation as that form of isolation in which social distance is based on physical separation. The best example of this anti-social device of division is not, as you might expect, the Indian caste system, but rather American "Jim Crow," the spreading phenomenon that has stifled the South since 1875.

  • Hospital Services and Facilities Available to Negroes in the United States (The Journal of Negro Education) Vol. 18, No. 3, Summer, 1949.
    It is impracticable to attempt to determine exactly what hospital services are available to Negroes in the United States. In many states Negroes are segregated in hospitals by law, in certain other areas segregation is so customary as to have almost the same effect. In these areas present hospital facilities for the separate races can be determined; but Negroes live all over the United States.


  • G6PD Deficiency (Kids Health) November 2009.
    G6PD deficiency is an inherited condition in which the body doesn't have enough of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, or G6PD, which helps red blood cells (RBCs) function normally. This deficiency can cause hemolytic anemia, usually after exposure to certain medications, foods, or even infections.

  • Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (Lancet) 2008.
    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect, being present in more than 400 million people worldwide.

  • The Origin of Glucose-6-Phosphate-Dehydrogenase (G6PD) Polymorphisms in African-Americans (American Journal of Human Genetics) 1992.
    DNA samples from 54 male Afro-Americans were examined for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)
    genotypes G6PD A( + )376G, G6PD A 202A/376G, and G6PD B and for polymorphisms in intron 5 (PvuII), at
    nucleotide 1311, and at nucleotide 1116 (PstI). In the G6PD B subjects, the nucleotide 1311 mutation and
    the PstI site appeared to be in linkage equilibrium.